TRAPS is a very rare autoinflammatory condition usually starts before the age of 4 years.[1–5]
It is estimated that only one in every million people develop TRAPS.[1,6] Europeans are mainly affected but the condition is increasingly occurring within other ethnic groups. Worldwide, only about 1,000 cases have been reported.
TRAPS flares are associated with the following symptoms:[4,5,7]
TRAPS flares can last a few days to a few months, but typically last about 3 weeks.
They usually occur spontaneously, but can also be triggered by: 
Possible symptoms of TRAPS (modified according to [2,4,5,7,8])
Over time, the fever bouts usually become less intense: some patients may have long periods of time between flares or have less frequent or severe flares in adulthood, but TRAPS is a lifelong condition. However, in about 3 out of 20 people, TRAPS can also lead to amyloidosis. This is a condition in which a protein called amyloid builds up in the kidneys, eventually leading to kidney failure. Recent advances in diagnostic techniques – which have helped to pinpoint a person’s precise type of amyloidosis, together with new medications, have meant that amyloidosis is now much more treatable than it used to be.
In TRAPS, activation of the innate immune system occurs because of changes in a gene coding for a protein called tumour necrosis factor receptor, which is involved in the inflammatory response.[2,7,11]
The genetic change leading to TRAPS can be inherited from either parent. This means a child will develop the illness even if the genetic change comes from only one parent.[2,7] There are also cases of patients with spontaneous (non-inherited) mutations for TRAPS, who can, however, pass the mutation to their children.
 Lainka E, Neudorf U, Lohse P et al. Rheumatology. 2009;48:987–91.
 Samuels J, Ozen S. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2006;18:108–17.
 Lachmann HJ, Hawkins PN. Arthritis Res Ther. 2009;11:212.
 Savic S, Dickie LJ, Battellino M et al. Curr Opin Rheumatol. 2012;24:103–12.
 Gattorno M, Federici S, Pelagatti MA et al. J Clin Immunol. 2008;28(suppl 1):S73–83.
 Lachmann HJ, Papa R, Gerhold K, et al. Ann Rheum Dis. Published Online First: 21 August 2013 doi:10.1136/annrheumdis-2013-204184.
 US National Library of Medicine. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome. Available from: http://ghr.nlm.nih.gov/condition/tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-associated-periodic-syndrome (accessed 2015).
 Drenth JPH, van der Meer JWM. NEJM. 2001;345:1748–1757.
 Dember LM. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2006;17:3458–3471.
 Wechelekar AD. Medicine. 2008;18:391-403.
 Ciccarelli F, De Martinis M, Ginaldi L. Curr Med Chem. 2014;21:261–269.